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Making Bio-Based Rocket Fuel

Rocket fuel is the latest in a long line of mexico levitra no prescription fuels being developed from bio sources instead of being produced from petrochemicals. Numerous other fuels have been developed from bio-diesel and synthetic gasolines to aviation fuels are now being made from microorganisms or from converting bio feedstocks. And now, scientists from the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Joint BioEnergy Institute have been able to produce a key component of JP-10 high energy fuel from bacterial sources.

Pinene is a component that is used in fuels that are used for missiles and rockets. It is found in tree sap, but it is primarily extracted from crude oil. Since only a small amount of pinene can be produced from each barrel of crude oil, it is expensive and difficult to obtain.

The researchers developed strains of E. coli which has been able to produce small quantities of pinene in the non generic levitra laboratory. There are still further steps to take before this becomes scalable and commercially viable, but the initial development has been the major milestone, and researchers on only here best prices on viagra the project expect to be able to further improve the process as they continue their work.

There is also a much stronger economic drive to develop bio-based rocket fuel as compared to other fuels. At present, petroleum-based JP-10 costs about $25 per gallon, so a difference of online viagra in u s a dollar or two per gallon could be significant, as well as being able to produce fuel for space travel without needing ot rely on petrochemical sources.

image: CC BY-SA 3.0 by Image courtesy of SpaceX/Wikimedia Commons

via: Solar Thermal Magazine


Enhanced Plant Oil Production May Boost Biofuels

A new development using genes from algae to engineer plants to healthcare of canada pharmacy store oils in their leaves could lead to improvements in both biofuel production and the manufacture of animal feed. Researchers from Michigan State University have made plants with oily leaves, which were demonstrated when worms fed these leaves grew fatter than worms fed the unmodified version of the plants.

Most plant oils are stored in the seeds of the plant, and can be difficult to extract. But plants that store oils in their stems and leaves can be more easily processed to extract those oils. They also may produce greater quantities of oil than the levitra original plants.

In addition to the potential use in biofuels, producing plants that store more oils in their leaves could also be a benefit for animal feed. Greater nutrition density from the same amount of crop could help feed more animals from the same area of cropland.

The lead scientist, MSU professor of biochemistry and tramadol for dogs molecular biology Christoph Benning, stated, "Many researchers are trying to enhance plants’ energy density, and this is another way of buy tramadol generic ultram approaching it. It’s a proof-of-concept that could be used to boost plants’ oil production for biofuel use as well as improve the nutrition levels of animal feed."

Ongoing research will next move from demonstration of the concept to begin to alternative to viagra explore specific applications "to enhance oil production in grasses and algae that have economic value."

image: by Rosendahl/Wikimedia Commons - Public Domain


Bacteria May Provide More Sustainable Biofuel Production

Biofuel, like many alternative energy sources that are on the rise, faces its share of criticism. While it sounds ideal to create fuel from plants rather than limited fossil fuels, many methods of producing biofuel come at a high environmental cost all their own. Land used for biofuel production, for example, could be better put to use growing consumable crops instead of “sustainable” power for our cars.

Although biofuels from wood or grass may have a better future than less sustainable sources like corn, they are much more difficult to produce. The first step in turning biomass from grasses, trees, and certain algae into biofuel is getting through lignin, the tough material of their cell walls, and the compound isn’t an easy one to break down.

However there are some bacteria that digest lignin quite well, and harnessing the chomping power of these microorganisms could eventually lead to easier and more sustainable biofuel creation. While researchers at Mississippi State University had focused on identifying the digestive bacteria in panda poop, researchers at Brown University are also studying microorganisms that can break down lignin--and have figured out the chemical switch to start the lignin digestive process in the bacteria Streptomyces.

One of the few microorganisms that can consume lignin, Streptomyces begins the digestion process by releasing enzymes to break lignin down into its constituent compounds. This lignin-derived carbon, which the cialis 20 mg bacteria uses for growth and reproduction, is also where the magic begins for biofuel production: Streptomyces converts some of it into triglycerides, essential components of biodiesel, as well as other useful compounds. The Brown researchers’ previous work showed which genes encode enzymes to break down one particular compound: protocatechuate. When Streptomyces was grown where protocatechuate was present, PcaV, a protein usually attached to the DNA that stops those genes clusters from encoding, lost its affinity for DNA--and those unblocked genes gave the green light for enzyme production.

While being able to kickstart the lignin digestion process could lead to an easier transformation of woody biomass into biofuel, producing biofuel through Streptomyces on a commercial scale is still a long way away. Nevertheless, this research is generic viagra overnight a step forward for bacteriology as well as sustainable bioenergy.

Image via Sello lab/Brown University

via: Inhabitat


Navy May Still Be Able to Sail Its "Great Green Fleet"

The US Navy is getting a reprieve from what looked like strong Congressional opposition to further use of biofuels in Navy vessels. Restrictions imposed this past May by Congress against the further use of biofuels by the Navy were recently repealed in the Senate.

The Navy has been testing the use of biofuels for the womans levitra past few years, and this legislation makes it more likely that the Navy can continue to explore the use of biofuels with its fleets. The Navy's "Great Green Fleet" planned for 2016 may still be a viable possibility.

The top military leadership is generally in favor of green measures. The armed services have been adopting greater use of more sustainable materials, and they recognize the strategic importance of energy conservation and self-reliance for energy needs. As a whole, the US Department of viagra pfizer buy online Defense is the single largest single user of oil in the world, so developing more sustainable sources is beneficial to them strategically as well as reducing their environmental impacts.

image: Public Domain by US Navy/Wikimedia Commons

via: Danger Room


Audi's Carbon Neutral E-Gas

Automakers have a strong interest in understanding and improving the fuel market. After all, without a stable fuel infrastructure in place, their products (the cars they build) are nothing more than big sculptures. So it's not surprising that Audi is involved in a carbon-neutral fuel called e-gas.

Working with an organic waste burning facility, CO2 is captured and then combined with electrolytically produced hydrogen (powered by clean energy sources like wind and viagra soft tabs solar) to create synthetic methane (which is natural gas). To use this fuel, Audi is building a dual-fuel car called the Audi A3 TCNG which can use either the e-gas or regular gasoline. The feedstock is soft gel viagra non-food organic waste, to avoid competition between food and fuel. In addition to the e-gas, Audi is also producing e-diesel and e-ethanol, to provide cleaner fuels for the entire range of its engines.

This is not too different from any number of other biofuel manufacturers. And this is not the cheapest levitra first time that an automaker has taken an interest in fuel manufacturing. (GM was an investor in Coskata, a biofuel startup that got a lot of attention in 2008.) The issue with this, and other, biofuel schemes is to make the entire process carbon neutral. Not only the fuel itself, but also the energy used in producing the fuel must all be clean or carbon neutral in order to be sustainable in the long term.

via: Jalopnik

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